Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment

Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment - In the United States, many workers are working in the asbestos industry that is hazardous to health. Due to prolonged exposure of asbestos, these workers develop the traits of Malignant Mesothelioma. This disease causes the formation of Malignant cells forms along the lining of the chest. This leads to breathing problems & immense pain near the rib cage area. If not treated properly, this disease spreads in the layers of tissue present in the heart, abdomen, and testicles.

1) Symptoms of Malignant Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma causes the collection of fluids near the chest area & leads to various unbearable problems. The different symptoms of Malignant Mesothelioma are breathing trouble, coughing, pain in the abdomen, weight loss, constipation, blood vomiting & clot formation. Trouble breathing.

2) Tests for detection of Malignant Mesothelioma

The following tests differentiate between lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma:
Physical Examination: A scan of the body for checking symptoms of health, & diseases, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits, exposure to asbestos, and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.

Chest Examination: It is done through X-Ray. All organs and chest area are studied by it. X-Ray pass through the patient organs and diagnosis him/her. 

CT Scan: A way that creates a combination of many pictures of the chest and abdomen, taken from different views. The images are made through a PC attached to an X-Ray setup. 

Biopsy Report: It consists of removing tissues from the peritoneum to be view through a microscope by a specialist to notice for signs of cancer. 

3) Treatments followed to collect cells

Procedures used to collect the cells are the following: 

1) Fine-needle (FNA) aspiration biopsy of the lung: It is the removal of tissue or cell using a thin needle. The needle is inserted through the chest wall and into the area of abnormal lung tissue & it is removed.

2) Thoracoscopy: A incision is made between two ribs and a thoracoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light is inserted for viewing.

3) Thoracotomy: An incision is done between two ribs to check inside the chest for signs of disease.

4) Peritoneoscopy: An incision is made in the wall, and a peritoneoscopy is inserted into the abdomen.

4) Factors affecting the treatment

It depends on the following factors:

  • (a) The condition of cancer.
  • (b) The range of the tumour.
  • (c) If the tumour can be by-passed by surgery.
  • (d) The amount of fluid in the chest.
  • (e) Age of patient.
  • (f) Activities are undertaken by the patient.
  • (g) The patient's case history, including lung and heart health.
  • (h) The range of mesothelioma cells and how they are perceived under a microscope.
  • (i) The number of WBC and what is the Haemoglobin in blood.
  • (j) Is the patient male or female.

 

5) Types of treatment

(a) Surgery

Given are the surgical treatments that may be used for malignant mesothelioma in the chest:

· Wide local excision: It is a type of surgery to remove cancer and some of the healthy tissues around it.
· Pleurectomy and decortication: It is done for removing part of the covering of the lungs and lining of the components outside the surface of the lungs.
· Extrapleural pneumonectomy: It removes the whole lung and lining of the diaphragm and sac around the heart.
· Pleurodesis: It uses chemicals to make a scar in the space between the layers of the pleura. The fluid is first drained from the area using a catheter or chest tube, and the chemical or drug is put into space.

(b) Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is known as a cancer treatment which uses X-Rays to kill cancer cells from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:

· External radiation therapy keeps a machine outside the body to stay radiation towards cancer.

· Internal radiation therapy remains an active ingredient packed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near cancer.

(c) Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a treatment which uses medicines to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or else prevents them from multiplying. Chemotherapy is taken orally or pierced into a vein; the drugs pass the bloodstream and reach cancer cells throughout the body.

When drugs are kept into the cerebrospinal fluid, a body cavity such as the chest, the therapy affects cells in regionally.

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is required in the treatment of mesothelioma, which has moved to the peritoneum. After removal of, a medium having anticancer drugs is induced into and out of the peritoneum to kill cancer cells that remain. Boiling the anticancer drugs may kill more cancer cells.

The method that chemotherapy is used depends on the type and stage of the disease being treated.

(d) Targeted Therapy

Targeted Therapy is a treatment which uses drugs for attacking cancer cells. Targeted therapies cause less harm to healthy cells than chemotherapy or radiation therapy do.

Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of similar therapy that immunes the complete body from all sorts of cancer cells. These detoxify & demarcate substances on cells or substances that help cancer cells grow.

The different antibodies mix with the substances and kill the cancer cells, stops the growth, or prevent them from multiplying. Monoclonal antibodies are induced by infusion. They are used for carrying drugs, wastes, or any harmful radioactive material directly to cancer cells.

Bevacizumab is an antibody that treats malignant mesothelioma. It acts as a binder for a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It, therefore, prevents the growth of different blood vessels that tumours need to grow. Other monoclonal antibodies are being for study in malignant mesothelioma.

Kinase inhibitors are a type of targeted therapy that is known for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. Kinase inhibitors target therapy drugs that stop signals required for tumours to propel.

(e) Biologic Therapy

Biologic Therapy is known for treating patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Components created by the organs or generated in a laboratory are required to boost or restore the natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.

Above information Credit Source : https://www.cancer.gov



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